The recent resolution of the parliamentary Assembly of the OSCE totally equalizes the role of the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany at the break out of the Second World War, other than the fact it had the purely practical function of obtaining money from Russia by means of extortion, on the contents of a few of the bankrupt economies, intended to demonize Russia as the follower state to the USSR, and to prepare the legal ground for the deprivation of her right to speak out against revision of the outcomes of war.
But if we approach the problem who was responsible for the war, then you first have to answer the crucial question: who helped the Nazis come to power? Who sent them on their method to world catastrophe? The whole pre-war history of Germany reveals that the arrangement of the "needed" policies were managed by the financial chaos, where, by the way, the world was plunged into.
The essential structures that specified the post-war development strategy of the West were the Central banks of Great Britain and the United States-- the Bank of England and the Federal Reserve System (FRS)-- and the associated monetary and industrial companies set out a target to establish absolute control over the monetary system of Germany to manage political procedures in Central Europe. To implement this strategy it is possible to assign the following phases:
1st: from 1919 to 1924-- to prepare the ground for huge American financial investment in the German economy;
2nd: from 1924 to 1929-- the establishment of control over the financial system of Germany and financial support for national socialism;
Third: from 1929 to 1933-- provoking and letting loose a deep financial and economic crisis and guaranteeing the Nazis come to power;
Fourth: from 1933 to 1939-- financial cooperation with the Nazi government and assistance for its expansionist foreign policy, aimed at preparing and implementing a new World War.
In the very first phase, the primary levers to guarantee the penetration of American capital into Europe started with war debts and the carefully relevant issue of German reparations. After the US' formal entry into the first World War, they offered the allies (mainly England and France) loans to the amount of $8.8 billion. The total amount of war debts, consisting of loans given to the United States in 1919-1921, was more than $11 billion.
To solve this problem, debtor nations tried to enforce a huge quantity of extremely difficult conditions for the payment of reparations at the cost of Germany. This was triggered by the flight of German capital abroad, and the refusal to pay taxes led to a state financial deficit that could be covered only through mass production of unsecured Marks. The outcome was the collapse of the German currency-- the "hyper inflation" of 1923, which amounted to 578 (512%), when the dollar value exceeded 4.2 trillion Marks. German Industrialists began to freely screw up all activities in the payment of reparation responsibilities, which ultimately triggered the famous "Ruhr crisis"-- Franco-Belgian profession of the Ruhr in January 1923.
The Anglo-American ruling circles, in order to take the initiative in their own hands, waited for France to become deeply caught up in a venturing adventure and to show its inability to solve the issue. US Secretary of State Hughes explained: "It is necessary to wait for Europe to mature in order to accept the American proposal."
The brand-new project was developed in the depths of "JP Morgan & Co." under the direction of the head of the Bank of England, Montagu Norman. At the core of his ideas was agent of the "Dresdner Bank" Hjalmar Schacht, who developed it in March 1922 at the suggestion of John Foster Dulles (future Secretary of state in the Cabinet of President Eisenhower) and legal consultant to President W. Wilson at the Paris peace conference. Dulles gave this note to the chief Trustee "JP Morgan & Co.", then JP Morgan suggested that H. Schacht, M. Norman, and the last of the Weimar rulers. In December, 1923, H. Schacht would become Manager of the Reichsbank and was instrumental in uniting the Anglo-American and German financial circles.
In the summer of 1924, the project known as the "Dawes plan" (named after the Chairman of the Committee of experts who produced it - American lender and Director of one of the banks of the Morgan group), was adopted at the London conference. He called for the cutting in half of the reparations and solved the question about the sources of their protection. However, the main task was to guarantee positive conditions for United States investment, which was just possible with stabilization of the German Mark.
To this end, the strategy gave Germany a big loan of $200 million, half which was accounted for by JP Morgan. While the Anglo-American banks acquired control not just over the transfer of German payments, however likewise for the budget plan, the system of financial circulation and to a huge level the credit system of the nation. By August 1924, the old German Mark was changed by a new, supported monetary situation in Germany, and, as the scientist G.D Preparta composed, the Weimar Republic was gotten ready for "the most picturesque economic aid in history, followed by the most bitter harvest in world history" — "an unstoppable flood of American blood poured into the financial veins of Germany.”
The repercussions of this were not slow to appear.
This was mostly due to the fact the annual reparations were to cover the amount of debt paid by the allies, formed by the so-called "absurd Weimar circle". The gold that Germany paid through war reparations, was offered, pawned, and vanished in the US, where it was then “given” back to Germany in the form of an "aid" plan, who gave it to England and France, and they in turn were to pay the war financial obligation of the United States. It was then overlayed with interest, and once again sent out to Germany. In the end, all in Germany lived in debt, and it was clear that must Wall Street withdraw their loans, the country will suffer complete bankruptcy.
Second of all, although formal credit was issued to protect payment, it was actually the remediation of the military-industrial capacity of the nation. The reality is that the Germans were paid in shares of business for the loans so that American capital started to actively integrate into the German economy.
The total amount of foreign financial investments in German industry during 1924-1929 totalled up to almost 63 billion gold Marks (30 billion was represented by loans), and the payment of reparations-- 10 billion Marks. 70% of revenue had been given by lenders from the United States, and most of the banks were from JP Morgan. As an outcome, in 1929, German market remained in second location worldwide, however it was largely in the hands of America's leading financial-industrial groups.
"Interessen-Gemeinschaft Farbenindustrie", the main provider to the German war effort, financed 45% of the election project of Hitler in 1930, and was under the control of Rockefeller “Standard Oil". Morgan, through "General Electric", managed the German radio and electrical industry through AEG and Siemens (approximately 1933, 30% of the shares of AEG owned "General Electric") through the Telecom company ITT-- 40% of the telephone network in Germany.
In addition, they owned a 30% stake in the airplane manufacturing company "Focke-Wulf". "General Motors", belonging to the DuPont family, developed control over "Opel". Henry Ford controlled 100% of the shares of "Volkswagen". In 1926, with the involvement of the Rockefeller Bank "Dillon, Reed & Co." the second largest commercial monopoly in Germany after "I.G Farben" emerged-- metallurgical issue "Vereinigte Stahlwerke" (Steel trust) Thyssen, Flick, Wolff, Feglera etc.
American cooperation with the German military-industrial complex was so extreme and pervasive that by 1933 the crucial sectors of German industry and large banks such as Deutsche Bank, Dresdner Bank, Donat Bank etc were under the control of American financial capital.
The political force that was intended to play an essential role in the Anglo-American strategies was being all at once prepared. We are discussing the funding of the Nazi celebration and A. Hitler personally.
As former German Chancellor Brüning composed in his memoirs, given that 1923, Hitler got large amounts from abroad. Where they went is unidentified, but they were received through Swiss and Swedish banks. It is likewise understood that, in 1922 in Munich, a meeting happened between A. Hitler and the military attache of the United States to Germany - Captain Truman Smith - who compiled an in-depth report for his Washington superiors (in the office of military intelligence), where he spoke highly of Hitler.
It was through Smith's circle of associates Hitler was first introduced to Ernst Franz Sedgwick Hanfstaengl (Putzie), a graduate of Harvard University who played a vital role in the development of A. Hitler as a political leader, rendered him considerable financial backing, and protected him the acquaintance and interaction with senior British figures.
Hitler was prepared in politics, however, while Germany ruled in success, his celebration remained on the periphery of public life. The situation changed significantly with the beginning of the crisis.
Since the fall of 1929 after the collapse of the American stock exchange was activated by the Federal Reserve, the third phase of the strategy of Anglo-American financial circles began.
The Federal Reserve and JP Morgan decided to stop lending to Germany, motivated by the banking crisis and economic depression in Central Europe. In September 1931, England ditch the gold requirement, deliberately ruining the international system of payments and completely cutting off the financial oxygen to the Weimar Republic.
But a monetary miracle accompanied the Nazi celebration: in September 1930, as a result of huge contributions from Thyssen, "I.G. Farben", Kirdorf’s political party got 6.4 million votes, and took second place in the Reichstag, after which charitable investments from abroad were activated. The primary link in between the significant German industrialists and foreign investors ended up being H. Schacht.
On January Fourth, 1932, a conference was held between the largest English financier M. Norman, A. Hitler, and von Papen, which concluded a secret contract on the financing of the NSDAP. Policymakers and the Dulles bros took part in this meeting, something which their biographers do not want to discuss. On January 14th, 1933, a conference in between Hitler, Schroder, Papen and Kepler happened, where Hitler's program was supports and fully authorized. It was here that they finally fixed the concern of the transfer of power to the Nazis, and on 30th January Hitler ended up being Chancellor. This resulted in the implementation of the fourth stage of the plan.
The mindset of the Anglo-American ruling circles to the brand-new government was really supportive. When Hitler chose not to pay reparations, which, naturally, called into question the payment of war debts, neither Britain nor France showed him the claims of the payments. Moreover, after the United States visit in May 1933, H. Schacht was positioned once again as the head of Reichsbank, and after his conference with the President and the most significant lenders on Wall Street, America allocated Germany new loans totalling $1 billion.
In June, throughout a trip to London and a meeting with M. Norman, Schacht also sought an English loan of $2 billion, and a decrease and after that cessation of payments on old loans. Thus, the Nazis got exactly what they might not have been able to attain with the previous federal government.
In the summer of 1934, Britain signed the Anglo-German transfer contract, which became one of the foundations of British policy to the Third Reich, and at the end of the 30's, Germany became the primary trading partner of England. Schroeder Bank ended up being the main representative of Germany in the UK, and in 1936 his workplace in New york city teamed up with the Rockefellers to develop the "Schroeder, Rockefeller & Co." financial investment Bank, which "Times" publication called the "economic propagandist axis of Berlin-Rome". As Hitler himself admitted, he conceived his four-year idea on the basis of foreign monetary loans, so it never ever inspired him with the slightest alarm.
In August 1934, American “Standard Oil" in Germany acquired 730,000 acres of land and developed large oil refineries that provided the Nazis with oil. At the same time, Germany secretly took delivery of the latest devices for airplane factories from the United States, which would begin the production of German planes.
Germany got a large number of military patents from American firms Pratt and Whitney", "Douglas", "Curtis Wright", and American technology was constructing the "Junkers-87". In 1941, when the Second world war was raving, American financial investments in the economy of Germany amounted to $475 million. “Standard Oil" invested - 120 million, "General motors" - $35 million, ITT-- $30 million, and "Ford"-- $17.5 million.
The close monetary and economic cooperation of Anglo-American and Nazi business circles was the background against which, in the 30's, a policy of appeasement caused the second world war.
Today, when the world's financial elite began to execute the "Great depression 2" strategy, with the subsequent shift to the "new world order", recognizing its essential role in the organization of crimes against humanity ends up being a concern.
Yuri Rubtsov is a professional doctor of historic sciences, academician of the Academy of military sciences, and member of the International Association of historians of world war II.
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